Vistula - about the name
The name was first recorded by Pomponius Mela in a.d. 40 and by Pliny in a.d. 77 in his Natural History. Mela names the river Vistula (3.33), Pliny uses Vistla (4.81, 4.97, 4.100). The root of the name Vistula is Indo-European *u?eis- ?to ooze, flow slowly? (cf. Sanskrit ?????? / ave?an ?they flowed?, Old Norse veisa ?slime?) and is found in many European rivernames (e.g. Weser, Viesinta).2 The diminutive endings -ila, -ula, were used in many Indo-European languages, including Latin (see Ursula).
In writing about the Vistula River and its peoples, Ptolemy uses the Greek spelling Ouistoula. Other ancient sources spell it Istula. Ammianus Marcellinus refers to the Bisula (Book 22), note the lack the -t-. Jordanes (Getica 5 & 17) uses Viscla while the Anglo-Saxon poem Widsith refers to it as the Wistla.3 12th-century Polish chronicler Wincenty Kadłubek Latinised the rivername as Vandalus, a form presumably influenced by Lithuanian vandu? ?water?, while Jan Długosz in his Annales seu cronicae incliti regni Poloniae called the Vistula ?white waters? (Alba aqua), perhaps referring to the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka): ?a nationibus orientalibus Polonis vicinis, ob aquae candorem Alba aqua ... nominatur.?
A visit to the main research units located in Cracow
Cracow is one of the student Polish cities, because very often organizes trips to this city student, whose aim is to explore the city, exploring the history of our country also in terms of scientific and visiting universities. Some foreign students staying in Poland on an exchange or on any internship program, they also try to get to know the city, to which they came. Often they visit the nationwide research centers located in city, such as the National Center for Science and the Branch of the Polish Academy of Sciences. In addition, they can learn the rules of research by Cracow's research units. Clearly, part of their visit is a tour of Cracow's universities.
Tramways of Cracow
Tourists can move around Cracow in several different ways. At small distances can simply walk, and larger sections are driven around by coach. After , you can also navigate using the trams, which have several lines and thus allow you to reach many places of city. Currently there are also light rail tunnel and a water tram ride which may be for many tourists an added attraction. A good complement to Cracow tram lines is extensive bus service, running on the system day and night, and faster and supportive. An additional motivation for the authorities cracked for expanding the public transport network is also a presence in this city of many students, including foreign.